In linguistics, a polarity item is a lexical item that can appear only in environments associated with a particular grammatical polarity – affirmative or negative. A polarity item that appears in affirmative (positive) contexts is called a positive polarity item (PPI), and one that appears in negative contexts is a negative polarity item (NPI).
Negative ‘Triggers’ (illustrated with any) I. Overt negatives: A. not [w/ NPI clausemate or complement] He did*(n’t) know anybody. He did*(n’t) claim (that) he knew anybody. He did*(n’t) think (that) he knew anybody. B. Incorporated negatives I doubt (that) he knows anybody. It’s …
Negative polarity item. A negative polarity item is an expression that is restricted to negative contexts and some other semantically related contexts such as questions and conditional clauses although its semantic properties would seem to allow occurrence in positive contexts as well.
Weird Linguistics: Negative Polarity Items. The rules for NPI can get really complex. For example, it is widely believed that they can only occur in downward-entailing contexts, though to explain some additional properties of NPI’s a more robust notion of veridicality is required. For example, NPI’s are allowed in questions,
The claim >>is that “much” and “many” are Negative Polarity Items. Which is to >>say that many if not most people do not use them outside negative >>environments most of the time. I haven’t done any counts on this; >>it’s not my research field, but I’d bet a text count would show >>a strong correlation.
Azerbaijani, like many other languages, has a class of negative polarity items denoting minimal measures (along dimensions such as size, length, duration, value, weight etc.), called minimizers.
Jan 01, 2000 · that negative polarity items are items that g ive rise to minimal pairs of af firmative and negative sentences, of which only the negative member is grammatical. The following pair,
Author: Jack Hoeksema
Introduction The characteristic feature of the class of expressions known as negative polarity items (NPIs) has been claimed to be the negative polarity property: a negative or affective construction in the environment, usually a morphologically explicit negation, negative adverb, negative adjective, implicature, or some other ‘abrogate’ term.
Examples and Observations: (Henry James, The Princess Casamassima, 1886) “Children must eventually learn the range of so-called negative polarity items, elements that occur only in negative, but not positive, contexts, as in uses of such idioms as lift a finger, care a fig for, bear (meaning ‘tolerate’), hold a candle to, and so on.
64. Negative and positive polarity items 1661 polarity: (a) scalarity (Giannakidou 2007a), which mostly yields weaker ill-formedness, and (b) referential deﬁ ciency of expressions that end up becoming NPIs.